SARS-CoV-2 and the Vaccination Hype


  • Piero Sangaletti Edge-Institute Austria at ER-System Mechatronics, Golling, Austria
  • Jane Doe Advisory Board of Concerned Scientists, Tampa, Florida USA
  • Antonietta Gatti Cofounder and Principal Investigator of Nanodiagnostics, SRL (Società a Responsabilità Limitata), Italy
  • Clemens Arvay Independent scientist and textbook author in Health Ecology, Vienna and Graz, Austria
  • Livio Giuliani International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety (ICEMS), Rome, Italy
  • Herbert Lettner Department of Chemistry and Physics of Materials, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria



COVID-19 vaccination, quasi-species consortia, mRNA-/vector-vaccine, SARS-CoV-2


The engineered spike protein of SARS-COV-2, and the corresponding infectious disease COVID-19 attributed to it, hold in their grip a large portion of humanity. The global race for a counter strategy quickly turned into a search for a vaccine as the preferred means to contain the virus. An unusually rapid development of different and completely new classes of experimental therapies that would widely be referred to as “vaccines” raised questions about safety, especially with regard to emergency use approval (EUA) being granted with unprecedented urgency and hardly any critical scrutiny. At present, independent researchers, even some former proponents and insiders, of the currently ongoing global experiment represented as a “vaccination” campaign point primarily to the lack of public safety studies based on empirical datasets that should be obtainable for the tens of millions, even hundreds of millions, of doses of mRNA and DNA vector therapeutics being distributed as “vaccines”. Studies regarding efficacy and “side effects” (sometimes fatalities or permanent iatrogenic injuries) of these experimental therapies have been by-passed in favor of short-term field data from real patients which inevitably raises scientific and ethical questions particularly in view of the fact that the persons and entities responsible for public safety hold deep financial and other vested interests in speeding along the distribution of the experimental pharmaceutical products. The lack of an open discussion about the experimental therapies for COVID-19 now being applied across all age groups, even children hardly impacted by COVID-19, is worrying. The core principle of open debate without pre-conceptions or vested interests in outcomes has been and continues to be utterly ignored. We hope to engage scientific discussion with the hope of helping decision-makers, the general public, and the media alike to consider the subject-matter of what is at stake in a context of reason rather than panic.


Adiguzel, Y., (2021). Molecular mimicry between SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins. Autoimmunity Reviews, 20(4), 102791.

Agmon-Levin, N., Paz, Z., Israeli, E., & Shoenfeld Y. (2009) Vaccines and autoimmunity. Nat Rev Rheumatol, 5(11):648-52.

Alwan, N.A., Burgess, R.A., Ashworth, S., Beale, R., Bhadelia, N., Bogaert, D., Dowd, J., Eckerle, I., Goldman, L.R., Greenhalgh, T., Gurdasani, D., Hamdy, A., Hanage, W.P., Hodcroft, E.B., Hyde, Z., Kellam, P., Kelly-Irving, M., Krammer, F., Lipsitch, M., McNally, A., McKee, M., Nouri, A., Pimenta, D., Priesemann, V., Rutter, H., Silver, J., Sridhar, D., Swanton, C., Walensky, R.P., Yamey, G., & Ziauddeen, H. (2020). Scientific consensus on the COVID-19 pandemic: we need to act now. Lancet 396(10260): e71-e72. The corresponding “John Snow Memorandum” is available online (accessed: Feb. 2021)

Andeweg, S.P., Vennema, H., Veldhuijzen, I.K., Smorenburg, N., Schmitz, D., Zwagemaker, F., SeqNeth, Molecular surveillance group, RIVM COVID-19 Molecular epidemiology group, van Gageldonk-Lafeber, A.B., Chantal, S.H., Reusken REM, Knol, M.J., & Eggink, D. (2021). Increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 Beta, Gamma, and Delta variant compared to Alpha variant in vaccinated individuals. medRxiv: 244530109.

Andrews, N., Stowe, J., Kirsebom, F., Toffa, S., Rickeard, T., Gallagher, E., Gower, C., Kall, M., Groves, N., O'Connell, A., Simons, D., Blomquist, P.B., Dabrera, G., Myers, R., Ladhani, S.N., Amirthalingam, G., Gharbia, S., Barrett, J.C., Elson, R., Ferguson, N., Zambon, M., Campbell, C.N.J., Brown, K., Hopkins, S., Chand, M., Ramsay, M., & Lopez Bernal, J. (2021). Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of concern. medRxiv, 2021.12.14.21267615.

Aubrit, F., Perugi, F., Léon, A., Guéhenneux, F., Champion-Arnaud, P., Lahmar, M., & Schwamborn K (2015). Cell substrates for the production of viral vaccines. Vaccine, 33(44): 5905-5912.

Arvay, C. (2020). Genetische Impfstoffe gegen COVID-19: Hoffnung oder Risiko? [Genetic Vaccines Against COVID-19: Hope Or Risk?] Schweiz Ärztezeitung, 101(2728): 862-864.

Avci, E., & Abasiyanik, F. (2021). Autoimmune hepatitis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine: New-onset or flare-up? J Autoimmun 125: 102745.

Bahl, K., Senn, J.J., Yuzhakov, O., Bulychev, A., Brito, L.A., Hassett, K.J., Laska, M.E., Smith, M., Almarsson, Ö., Thompson, J., Ribeiro, A.M., Watson, M., Zaks, T., & Ciaramella, G. (2017). Preclinical and clinical demonstration of immunogenicity by mRNA vaccines against H10N8 and H7N9 influenza viruses. Mol Ther, 25(6):1316-1327.

Baum, C., Kustikova, O., Modlich, U., Li, Z.X., & Fehse, B. (2006). Mutagenesis and oncogenesis by chromosomal insertion of gene transfer vectors. Hum Gene Ther , 17(3): 253-263.

Birnhack, M. (2021). Who Controls COVID-Related Medical Data? Copyright and Personal Data. IIC 52: 821–824. Doi: 10.1007/s40319-021-01067-5; related source file: (accessed: Feb. 2021)

BL, (2020). Dr. Kary Mullis—Inventor of PCR. Benevolent Lite. (accessed: Dec. 2021)

Blankenhorn, D. (2021). Novavax Stock Needs a Longer Pandemic as Investor Patience Wears Thin. Investor Place (accessed: Sept. 2021):

Blaylock, R.L. (2021). Excitotoxicity (immunoexcitotoxicity) as a critical component of the cytokine storm reaction in pulmonary viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. International Journal of Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research, 1(2), 223–242.

Bock, J. (2021). Vaccinating people who have had COVID-19: why doesn’t natural immunity count in the US? BMJ, 374: n2101.

BN, (2019a). Vaccino antiinfluenzale: a Bergamo ordinate 185 000 dosi. Bergamo News. (accessed: May 2020)

BN, (2019b). Emergenza Meningite, Vaccinate 34mila persone tra Brescia e Bergamo. Bergamo News. (accessed: May 2020)

Bresalier, R.S., Sandler, R.S., Quan, H., Bolognese, J.A., Oxenius, B., Horgan, K., Lines, C., Riddell, R., Morton, D., Lanas, A., Konstam, M.A., & Baron, J.A. (2005). Adenomatous polyp prevention on Vioxx (APPROVe) trial investigators. Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib in a colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial. N Engl J Med. 352(11): 1092-1102.

Broudy, D. (2021). Vaccine development and social control: A psychopathology of impaired reasoning in the global push for mass compliance. International Journal of Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research, 2(1), 93–124.

Broudy, D., & Arakaki, M. (2020). Who wants to be a slave? The technocratic convergence of humans and data. Frontiers in Communication, 5.

Broudy, D., & Hoop, D. (2021). Messianic mad men, medicine, and the media war on empirical reality: Discourse analysis of mainstream COVID-19 propaganda. International Journal of Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research, 2(1), 1–24.

Broudy, D., & Kyrie, V. (2021). Syllogistic reasoning demystifies evidence of COVID-19 vaccine constituents. International Journal of Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research, 2(1), 149–172.

Bruno, R., McCullough, P.A.I., Villa. T,F., Henrion-Caude A, García-Gasca, T., Zaitzeva, G.P., Priester, S., Albarracín, M.J.M., Sousa-Escandon, A., Mirones, F.L., Payeras-Cifre, B., Zaragoza-Velilla, A., Borini, L.M., Mas, M., Salazar, R., Schinder, E., Yahbes, E.A., Witt, M., Salmeron, M., Fernández, P., Marchesini, M.M., Kajihara, A.J., De La Riva, M.V., Chimeno, P.J., Grellet, P.A., Lisdero, M., Mas, P., Baudo, A.J.G., Retamoza, E., Botta, O., Brandolino, C.C., Sciuto, J., Avivar, M.C., Castillo, M., Villarroel, P., Poblete-Rojas, E.P., Aguayo, B., Macías-Flores, D.I., Rossell, J.V., Sarmiento, J.C., Andrade-Sotomayor, V., Stokes-Baltazar, W.R., Cedeño-Escobar, V., Arrúa, U., Farina del Río, A., Campos-Esquivel, T., Callisperis, P., Barrientos, M.E., Fiala, C., & Acevedo-Whitehouse, K. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 mass vaccination: Urgent questions on vaccine safety that demand answers from international health agencies, regulatory authorities, governments and vaccine developers. Authorea, preprint.

Buchbinder, S.P., McElrath, M.J., Dieffenbach, C., & Corey, L. (2020). Use of adenovirus type-5 vectored vaccines: a cautionary tale. Lancet, 396(10260):e68-e69.

Buda, S., Preuss, U., Wedde, M., & Duerrwald, R. (2019). Effectiveness of vaccination against seasonal influenza — vaccine effectiveness (Wirksamkeit der Impfung gegen saisonale Influenza – Impfeffektivität), In: Report on the Epidemiology of Influenza in Germany, Season 2018/19 (Bericht zur Epidemiologie der Influenza in Deutschland, Saison 2018/19), Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin (FRG).; (accessed: July 2020)

Burrell, S.A.M., & Exley, C. (2010). There is (still) too much aluminium in infant formulas. BMC Pediatrics, 10, 63.

Burrell, C.J., Howard, C.R., & Murphy, F.A. (2016) Fenner and White’s Medical Virology, 5th ed. Academic Press Elsevier Publisher, San Diego (CA). ISBN 978-0-12-375156-0

Butnaru, D., & Shoenfeld, Y. (2015). Adjuvants and lymphoma risk as part of the ASIA spectrum. Immunologic Research, 61(1–2), 79–89.

Cabanillas, B., Akdis, C., & Novak, N. (2020). Allergic reactions to the first COVID‐19 vaccine: a potential role of Polyethylene glycol? Allergy 14711.

Cao, W., He, L., Cao, W., Huang, X., Jia, K., & Dai, J. (2020). Recent progress of graphene oxide as a potential vaccine carrier and adjuvant. Acta Biomater, 112:14-28.

Cappello, F., Gammazza, A.M., Dieli, F., de Macario E.C., Macario, A.J. (2020). Does SARS-CoV-2 Trigger Stress-Induced Autoimmunity by Molecular Mimicry? A Hypothesis. J Clin Med, 9(7): 2038.

CDC, (2020). Weekly Updates by Select Demographic and Geographic Characteristics – Provisional Death Counts for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Center for Disease Control. Centers for Disease and Control Prevention. (accessed: June 2020).

CDC, (2021a). Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (accessed: Jan. 2020)

CDC, (2021b). Development of Antibodies and Immunity. (accessed: Sept. 2021)

CDC, (2021c). Interim Guidelines for COVID-19 Antibody Testing. (accessed: Sept. 2021)

Chang, M.C., Hur, J., & Park, D. (2020). Interpreting the COVID-19 Test Results: A Guide for Physiatrists. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 99(7): 583-585.

Chau, N.V.V., Ngoc, N.M., Nguyet, L.A., Quang, V.M., Ny, N.T.H., Khoa, D.B., Phong, N.T., Toan, L.M., Hong, N.T.T., Tuyen, N.T.K., Phat, V.V., Nhu, L.N.T., Truc, N.H.T., That, B.T.T., Thao, H.P., Thao, T.N.P., Vuong, V.T., Tam, T.T.T., Tai, N.T., Bao, H.T., Nhung, H.T.K., Minh, N.T.N., Tien, N.T.M., Huy, N.C., Choisy, M., Man, D.N.H., Ty, D.T.B., Anh, N.T., Uyen, L.T.T., Tu, T.N.H., Yen, L.M., Dung, N.T., Hung, L.M., Truong, N.T., Thanh, T.T., Thwaites, G., & Tan, L.V. (2021). An observational study of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infections among vaccinated healthcare workers in Vietnam. E-Clinical Medicine, 41: 101143.

CHD (2021). Ending childhood health epidemics. Children's Health Defense. (accessed: Dec. 2021)

Chen YY, Syed AM, MacMillan P, Rocheleau JV, Chan WCW (2020) Flow rate affects nanoparticle uptake into endothelial cells. Adv Mater, 32(24): e1906274.

Chen, Y., Xu, Z., Wang, P., Li, X.M., Shuai, Z.W., Ye, D.Q., & Pan, H.F. (2021) New-onset autoimmune phenomena post-COVID-19 vaccination. Immunology, [ahead of print].

Chung, Y.H., Beiss, V., Fiering, S.N., & Steinmetz, N.F. (2020). COVID-19 vaccine frontrunners and their nanotechnology design. ACS Nano, 14(10), 12522–12537. Full text PDF 2021 available at

Cerpa-Cruz, S., Paredes-Casillas, P., Landeros-Navarro, E., Bernard-Medina, A.G., Martínez-Bonilla, G., & Gutiérrez-Ureña, S. (2013). Adverse events following immunization with vaccines containing adjuvants. Immunol Res,. 56(2-3): 299-303.

Chiu, W.J., Chen, Y.C., Huang, C.C., Yang, L., Yu, J., Huang, S.W., & Lin, C.H. (2021). Iron hydroxide/oxide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for dual-modality photodynamic and photothermal therapy in vitro and in vivo. Nanomaterials, 11(8), 1947.

CI, (2020). Province of Bergamo and city of Bergamo. Census Data from 2016. Comuni Italiani. (accessed: May 2020)

Coors, E.A., Seybold, H., Merk, H.F., & Mahler, V. (2005). Polysorbate 80 in medical products and nonimmunologic anaphylactoid reactions. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, 95(6): 593-599.

Cowling, B.J., Fang, V.J., Nishiur, H., Chan, K.H., Ng, S., Ip, D.K.M., Chiu, S.S., Leung, G.M., & Peiris, J.S.M. (2012). Increased risk of noninfluenza respiratory virus infections associated with receipt of inactivated influenza vaccine. CID, 54: 1778-1783.

Crépeaux, G., Authier, F.J., Exley, C., Luján, L., & Gherardi, R.K. (2020). The role of aluminum adjuvants in vaccines raises issues that deserve independent, rigorous and honest science. J Trace Elem Med Biol, 62:126632.

Desfarges, S., & Ciuffi, A. (2012). Viral integration and consequences on host gene expression. In: Witzany, G. (ed) Viruses: Essential Agents of Life, 147–175. Springer, Dodrecht (NL).

De Melo, G.D., Lazarini, F., Larrous, F., Feige, L., Kornobis, E., Levallois, S., Marchio, A., Kergoat, L., Hardy, D., Cokelaer, T., Pineau, P., Lecuit, M., Lledo, P.M., Changeux, J.P., & Bourhy, H. (2021). Attenuation of clinical and immunological outcomes during SARS-CoV-2 infection by ivermectin. EMBO Mol Med, 13(8):e14122.

deVrieze, J. (2021). Pfizer’s vaccine raises allergy concerns. Science 371(6524): 10-11.

Doerfler, W. (2021). Adenoviral vector DNA- and SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines: Possible integration into the human genome — are adenoviral genes expressed in vector-based vaccines? Virus Res, 302: 198466.

Dotan, A., Muller, S., Kanduc, D., David, P., Halpert, G., & Shoenfeld, Y. (2021). The SARS-CoV-2 as an instrumental trigger of autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev, 20(4):102792.

Doshi, P. (2020a). COVID-19 vaccine trial protocols released. BMJ, 371: m4058.

Doshi, P. (2020b). Will COVID-19 vaccines save lives? Current trials aren’t designed to tell us. BMJ, 371: m4037.

Eaton, A., Lewis, N., Fireman, B., Hansen, J., Baxter, R., Gee, J., & Klein, N. P. (2018). Birth outcomes following immunization of pregnant women with pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine 2009–2010. Vaccine, 36(19), 2733–2739.

EBMPHET Consortium, (2020.) COVID-19 Severity in Europe and the USA: Could the Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Play a Role? doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3621446. (accessed: June 2020)

EC, (2021a). Commission identifies five promising candidate therapeutics. European Comission Press Release 29th June 2021; (accessed: June 2021)

EC, (2021b). Questions and Answers – EU Digital COVID certificate. (accessed: Sept. 2021)

ECDC, (2021). Risk related to the spread of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in the EU/EEA — first update. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; (accessed: Feb. 2021)

EMA, (2021a). AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine: EMA finds possible link to very rare cases of unusual blood clots with low blood platelets. European Medical Agency. (accessed: Feb. 2021)

EMA, (2021b). Online access to suspected side-effect reports. European Medical Agency.  search for Covid-19 (accessed: Feb. 2020)

EMA, (2021c). Assessment report: COVID-19 mRNA Biontec. Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/005735/0000. (accessed: Feb. 2021)

EMA, (2021d). Assessment report: COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna. Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/005791/0000. (accessed: Feb. 2021)

EMA, (2021e). Assessment report: COVID-19 Vaccine Astrazeneca. Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/005675/0000. (accessed: June 2021)

EMA, (2021f). Assessment report: COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen. Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/005737/0000 (accessed: March 2021)

EudraVigilence, (2021). European database of suspected adverse drug reaction reports. (accessed June 2021)

EuroMomo, (2022). European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action. (accessed: Jan. 2022)

EuroStat, (2020). Vaccination against influenza of population aged 65 and over. European Commission. (accessed: May 2020)

Event201, (2019). A pandemic exercise to illustrate preparedness efforts. Media event hosted by Johns Hopkins Blumberg School of Public Health, World Economic Forum, & Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. (2019, October 18). (accessed Dec. 2021)

Exley, C. (2017). Aluminum should now be considered a primary etiological factor in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Reports, 1(1), 23–25.

Farinholt, T., Doddapaneni, H., Qin, X., Menon, V., Meng, Q., Metcalf, G., Chao, H., Gingras, M.C., Avadhanula, V., Farinholt, P., Agrawal, C., Muzny, D.M., Piedra, P.A., Gibbs, R.A., & Petrosino, J. (2021) Transmission event of SARS-CoV-2 delta variant reveals multiple vaccine breakthrough infections. BMC Med, 19(1): 255.

Fleming, D.R.M. (2021). Is COVID-19 a Bioweapon?: A Scientific and Forensic investigation. Skyhorse Publishing (NY). ISBN 978-1-5107-7019-5

Fuellmich R (2021) Internationale Rechtsanwaltskanzlei fuer Verbraucherschutz und Medizinrecht (Int. Law office for consumer protection and medical law). (accessed: Dec. 2021)

Garçon, N., Vaughn, D. W., & Didierlaurent, A. M. (2012). Development and evaluation of AS03, an Adjuvant System containing α-tocopherol and squalene in an oil-in-water emulsion. Expert Review of Vaccines, 11(3), 349–366.

Gardner, L., Dong, E., CSSE (2021). The COVID-19 Testing Insight Initiative. Coronavirus Resource Center. Center for Systems Science and Engineering at John Hopkins University. (accessed 20 Aug. 2021)

Gargano, J.W., Wallace, M., Hadler, S.C., Langley, G., Su, J.R., Oster, M.E., Broder, K.R., Gee, J., Weintraub, E., Shimabukuro, T., Scobie, H.M., Moulia, D., Markowitz, L.E., Wharton, M., McNally, V.V., Romero, J.R., Talbot, H.K., Lee, G.M., Daley, M.F., & Oliver, S.E. (2021). Use of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine After Reports of Myocarditis Among Vaccine Recipients: Update from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 70(27): 977-982.

Gatti, A., & Montanari, S. (2015). Case studies in Nanotoxicology and Particle toxicology. Akademic Press Elsevier Publisher, London (UK); ISBN 9-780-128-01215-4

Gherardi, R.K., Coquet, M., Cherin, P., Belec, L., Moretto, P., Dreyfus, P.A., Pellissier, J.F., Chariot, P., & Authier, F.J. (2001). Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle. Brain, 124(Pt 9): 1821-1831.

Gherardi, R. K., Crépeaux, G., & Authier, F.-J. (2019). Myalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome following immunization: Macrophagic myofasciitis and animal studies support linkage to aluminum adjuvant persistency and diffusion in the immune system. Autoimmunity Reviews, 18(7), 691–705.

GISRS (2021) Influenza Laboratory Surveillance Information provided by the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System, WHO. (accessed Dec. 2021)

GoA, (2021). COVID-19 Alberta statistics. Interactive aggregate data on COVID-19 cases in Alberta. Government of Alberta (CDN). (accessed Jan. 2022). As of 14th of Jan. 2022 the interactive chart section is no longer available on the GoA-website, repository data access is only possible via the web-archive; (accessed Jan. 2022)

Goldman, S., Bron, D., Tousseyn, T., Vierasu, I., Dewispelaere, L., Heimann, P., Cogan, E., & Goldman, M. (2021). Rapid progression of angioimmunoblastic T Cell lymphoma following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine booster shot: a case report. Frontiers in Medicine, 8:798095.

Gomes, M.G.M., Corder, R.M., King, J.G., Langwig, K.E., Souto-Maior, C., Carneiro, J., Goncalves, G., Penha-Goncalves, C., Ferreira, M.U., & Aguas, R. (2020). Individual variation in susceptibility or exposure to SARS-CoV-2 lowers the herd immunity threshold. medRxiv, 2020.04.27.20081893.

Grady, D. (2021). A Few Covid Vaccine Recipients Developed a Rare Blood Disorder, The New York Times. (accessed: Feb. 2021)

Grenfell, B.T., Pybus, O.G., Gog, J.R., Wood, J.L., Daly, J.M., Mumford, J.A., & Holmes, E.C. (2004). Unifying the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogens. Science, 303(5656): 327-332.

Grifoni, A., Weiskopf, D., Ramirez, S.I., Mateus, J., Dan, J.M., Moderbacher, C.R., Rawlings, S.A., Sutherland, A., Premkumar, L., Jadi, R.S., Marrama, D., de Silva, A.M., Frazier, A., Carlin, A.F., Greenbaum, J.A., Peters, B., Krammer, F., Smith, D.M., Crotty, S., & Sette, A. (2020). Targets of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in humans with COVID-19 disease and unexposed individuals. Cell, 181(7):1489-1501.e15.

GU, (2021). Misure urgenti per il contenimento dell'epidemia da COVID-19, in materia di vaccinazioni anti SARS-CoV-2, di giustizia e di concorsi pubblici. (21G00056). Urgent measures for the containment of the epidemic of COVID-19, in the field of vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2, justice and public sector. Gazzetta Ufficiale Serie Generale n.79 del 01-04-2021 (accessed: May 2021)

Gurunathan, S., Arsalan-Iqbal, M., Qasim, M., Park, C.H., Yoo, H., Hwang, J.H., Uhm, S.J., Song, H., Park, C., Do, J.T., Choi, Y., Kim, J.H., & Hong, K. (2019). Evaluation of graphene oxide induced cellular toxicity and transcriptome analysis in human embryonic kidney cells. Nanomaterials (Basel). 9(7): 969.

Guzik, T.J., Mohiddin, S.A., Dimarco, A., Patel, V., Savvatis, K., Marelli-Berg, F.M., Madhur, M.S., Tomaszewski, M., Maffia, P., D'Acquisto, F., Nicklin, S.A., Marian, A.J., Nosalski, R., Murray, E.C., Guzik, B., Berry, C., Touyz, R.M., Kreutz, R., Wang, D.W., Bhella, D., Sagliocco, O., Crea, F., Thomson, E.C., & McInnes, I.B. (2020) COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system: implications for risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment options. Cardiovasc Res, 116(10): 1666-1687.

Haberecker, M., Schwarz, E.I., Steiger, P., Frontzek, K., Scholkmann, F., Zeng, X., Höller, S., Moch, H., & Varga, Z. (2021). Autopsy-based pulmonary and vascular pathology: pulmonary endotheliitis and multi-organ involvement in COVID-19 associated deaths. Respiration, 1-11.

Hajjo, R., Sabbah, D.A., Bardaweel, S.K., & Tropsha, A. (2021). Shedding the light on post-vaccine myocarditis and pericarditis in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 vaccine recipients. Vaccines (Basel), 9(10):1186.

Hassett, K.J., Benenato, K.E., Jacquinet, E., Lee, A., Woods, A., Yuzhakov, O., Himansu, S., Deterling, J., Geilich, B.M., Ketova, T., Mihai, C., Lynn, A., McFadyen, I., Moore, M.J., Senn, J.J., Stanton, M.G., Almarsson, Ö., Ciaramella, G., & Brito, L.A. (2019). Optimization of lipid nanoparticles for intramuscular administration of mRNA vaccines. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids, 15:1-11.

Hasson, S., Al-Busaidi, J., & Sallam, T. (2015). The past, current, and future trends in DNA vaccine immunisations. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 5(5): 344-353.

Hirose, S., Hara, M., Koda, K., Natori, N., Yokota, Y., Ninomiya, S., & Nakajima, H. (2021). Acute autoimmune transverse myelitis following COVID-19 vaccination: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 100(51): e28423.

Ho, M.-W. (1999). Genetic Engineering, Dream or Nightmare? The Brave New World of Bad Science and Big Business, 2nd ed. Gateway Books, Dublin (IRL). ISBN 0-8264-1257-2

Ho, M.-W. (2013). The new genetics and natural versus artificial genetic modification. Entropy, 15(11), 4748–4781.

Ho, M.-W. (2014). Illuminating water and life. Entropy, 16(9), 4874–4891.

Hsee, C.K., & Ruan, B. (2016). The Pandora Effect: The power and peril of curiosity. Psychological Science, 1:8.

Hooker, B.S., & Miller, N.Z. (2020). Analysis of health outcomes in vaccinated and unvaccinated children: Developmental delays, asthma, ear infections and gastrointestinal disorders. SAGE Open Med, 8: 2050312120925344.

Hafeez, M.U., Ikram, M., Shafiq, Z., Sarfraz, A., Sarfraz, Z., Jaiswal, V., Sarfraz, M., Chérrez-Ojeda, I. (2021). COVID-19 Vaccine-Associated Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS): A Systematic Review and Post Hoc Analysis. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost, 27:10760296211048815.

Inserra, F., Tajer, C., Antonietti, L., Mariani, J., Ferder, L., & Manucha, W. (2021). Vitamin D supplementation: An alternative to enhance the effectiveness of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2? Vaccine, 39(35): 4930-4931.

Ioannidis, J.P.A. (2020). Infection fatality rate of COVID-19 inferred from seroprevalence data. Bulletin of the WHO, 99(1): 19-33F.

Iwasaki, A., & Yang, Y. (2020). The potential danger of suboptimal antibody responses in COVID-19. Nat Rev Immunol, 20(6): 339-341.

Jackson, L.A., Anderson, E.J., Rouphael, N.G., Roberts, P.C., Makhene, M., Coler, R.N., McCullough, M.P., Chappell, J.D., Denison, M.R., Stevens, L.J., Pruijssers, A.J., McDermott, A., Flach, B., Doria-Rose, N.A., Corbett, K.S., Morabito, K.M., O’Dell, S., Schmidt, S.D., Swanson, P.A., Padilla, M., Mascola, J.R., Neuzil, K.M., Bennett, H., Sun, W., Peters, E., Makowski, M., Albert, J., Cross, K., Buchanan, W., Pikaart-Tautges, R., Ledgerwood, J.E., Graham, B.S., & Beigel, J.H. (2020). An mRNA Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 - Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med, 2022483.

Janiaud, P., Hemkens, L.G., & Ioannidis, J.P.A. (2021). Challenges and lessons learned from COVID-19 trials - should we be doing clinical trials differently? Can J Cardiol, S0828-282X(21)00285-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2021.05.009

Jenkins, H.E., Aylward, R.B., Gasasira, A., Donnelly, C.A., Mwanza, M., Corander, J., Garnier, S., Chauvin, C., Abanida, E., Pate, M.A., Adu, F., Baba, M., & Grassly, N.C. (2010). Implications of a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus in Nigeria. N Engl J Med, 362(25): 2360-9.

Jiang, H., & Mei, Y.F. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 spike impairs DNA damage repair and inhibits V(D)J recombination in vitro. Viruses, 13(10):2056.

Jiang, S. (2020). Don’t rush to deploy COVID-19 vaccines and drugs without sufficient safety guarantees. Nature, 579: 321.

Jones, N. (2020). How COVID-19 is changing the cold and flu season. Nature, 588(7838): 388-390.

Karrow, N.A., Shandilya, U.K., Pelech, S., Wagter-Lesperance, L., McLeod, D., Bridle, B., & Mallard, B.A. (2021) Maternal COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Potential Impact on Fetal and Neonatal Development. Vaccines (Basel). 18;9(11): 1351.

Kaur, U., Ojha, B., Pathak, B.K., Singh, A., Giri, K.R., Singh, A., Das, A., Misra, A., Yadav, A.K., Kansal, S., & Chakrabarti, S.S. (2021). A prospective observational safety study on ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 corona virus vaccine (recombinant) use in healthcare workers- first results from India. E Clinical Medicine, 38:101038.

Keehner, J., Horton, L.E., Binkin, N.J., Laurent, L.C., Pride, D., Longhurst, C.A., Abeles, S.R., & Torriani, F.J. (2021). Resurgence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a highly vaccinated health system workforce. N Engl J Med, 2021 ahead of print;

Kennedy, R. F., Jr. (2021). The Real Anthony Fauci: Bill Gates, Big Pharma, and the Global War on Democracy and Public Health. Skyhorse Publishing (NY). ISBN 978-1-5107-6680-8

Kim, D., Wu, Y., Shim, G., & Oh, Y.-K. (2021). Lipid nanoparticle-mediated lymphatic delivery of immunostimulatory nucleic acids. Pharmaceutics, 13(4), 490.

Kim, M.A., Lee, Y.W., Kim, S.R., Kim, J.H., Min, T.K., Park, H.S., Shin, M., Ye, Y.M., Lee, S., Lee, J., Choi, J.H., Jang, G.C., & Chang, Y.S. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine-associated anaphylaxis and allergic reactions: consensus statements of the KAAACI Urticaria/Angioedema/Anaphylaxis Working Group. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res, 13(4):526-544.

Kissling, E., Rose, A., Emborg, H.D. Gherasim, A., Pebody, R., Pozo, F., Trebbien, R., Mazagatos, C., Whitaker, H., Valenciano, M., European IVE group (2019). Interim 2018/19 influenza vaccine effectiveness: six European studies, October 2018 to January 2019. Euro Surveil, 24(8): 1900121.

Kostoff, R.N., Calina, D., Kanduc, D., Briggs, M.B., Vlachoyiannopoulos, P., Svistunov, A.A., & Tsatsakis, A. (2021). Why are we vaccinating children against COVID-19? Toxicol Rep. 8: 1665-1684.

Kowarz, E., Krutzke, L., Reis, J., Bracharz, S., Kochanek, S., & Marschalek, R. (2021). Vaccine-induced COVID-19 mimicry” syndrome: splice reactions within the SARS-CoV-2 spike open reading frame result in spike protein variants that may cause thromboembolic events in patients immunized with vector-based vaccines. Nature-portfolio [preprint]

Krutzke, L., Roesler, R., Wiese, S., & Kochanek, S. (2021). Process-related impurities in the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine. Nature-portfolio [preprint]

Kucirka, L.M., Lauer, S.A., Laeyendecker, O., Boon, D., & Lessler, J. (2020). Variation in False-Negative Rate of Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction–Based SARS-CoV-2 Tests by Time Since Exposure. Ann Intern Med, M20-1495.

Kulldorff, M., Gupta, S., & Bhattacharya, J. (2020) Great Barrington Declaration. (accessed: Feb. 2021)

Lee, W.S., Wheatley, A.K., Kent, S.J DeKosky, B.J. (2020). Antibody-dependent enhancement and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapies. Nat Microbiol, 5(10): 1185-1191.

Lessells, R.J. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern: the knowns and unknowns. Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine,

Leslie, R. (2021). How COVID hurt the fight against other dangerous diseases. Nature, 592: 502-504.

Lippi, G., Plebani, M., & Henry, B.M. (2020). Thrombocytopenia is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections: A meta-analysis. Clin Chim Acta, 506:145-148.

Livny, A. (2021). The Testimonies Project — testimonies after Covid-19 vaccination. (accessed: Sept. 2021)

Liu, S., Wang, J., Liu, Y., Xu, Y., Che, X., Gu, W., Du, J., Zhang, X., & Xu, E. (2017). Survey of contraindications in children's routine vaccination in Hangzhou, China. Hum Vacc Immunother, 13(7):1539-1543.

Loffredo, J. (2021). British Funeral Director Tells RFK, Jr. About Fear, Propaganda and COVID Vaccine Deaths During Early Days of Pandemic. Children’s Health Defense. (accessed: Dec. 2021)

Lopalco, P.L. (2017). Wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation, and implications for polio eradication. Epidemiol Infect, 145(3): 413-419.

Lopez-Leon, S., Wegman-Ostrosky, T., Perelman, C., Sepulveda, R., Rebolledo, P.A., Cuapio, A., & Villapol, S. (2021). More than 50 long-term effects of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv [preprint]: 2021.01.27.21250617.

Lurie, N., Saville, M., Hatchett, R., & Halton, J. (2020). Developing COVID-19 vaccines at pandemic speed. N Engl J Med, 382:1969-1973;

Lyons-Weiler, J. (2020). Pathogenic priming likely contributes to serious and critical illness and mortality in COVID-19 via autoimmunity. J Transl Autoim, 3: 100051.

Lyons-Weiler, J., McFarland, G., & La Joie, E. (2020). Impact of catch-up vaccination on aluminum exposure due to new laws and post social distancing. J Trace Elem Med Biol, 62:126649.

Madl, P., Arvay, C., Gatti, A., Giuliani, L., Lettner, H. (2021). Air Pollution, SARS-CoV-2 and the Wider Implications - An Overview of Recent Events with a Focus on Italy. Aerosol Air Qual. Res, 21, 200438.

Mallapaty, S. (2021). COVID vaccines cut the risk of transmitting Delta - but not for long. Nature,

Mansuriya, B.D., & Altintas, Z. (2021). carbon dots: classification, properties, synthesis, characterization, and applications in health care-an updated review (2018-2021). Nanomaterials, 11(10), 2525.

Masson, J.D., Crépeaux, G., Authier, F.J., Exley, C., & Gherardi, R.K. (2017). [Critical analysis of reference studies on aluminium-based adjuvants toxicokinetics]. Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises, 75(4), 245–256.

Mathieu, E., Ritchie, H., Ortiz-Ospina, E., Roser, M., Hasell, J., Appel, C., Giattino, C., & Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2021). A global database of COVID-19 vaccinations. Nat Hum Behav 5: 947-953. doi: 10.1038/s41562-021-01122-8; Data on COVID-19 (coronavirus) vaccinations by Our World in Data, accessible:

McCullough, P.A., Kelly, R.J., Ruocco, G., Lerma, E., Tumlin, J., Wheelan, K.R., Katz, N., Lepor, N.E., Vijay, K., Carter, H., Singh, B., McCullough, S.P., Bhambi, B.K., Palazzuoli, A., De Ferrari, G.M., Milligan, G.P., Safder, T., Tecson, K.M., Wang, D.D., McKinnon, J.E., O'Neill, W.W., Zervos, M., & Risch, H.A. (2021). Pathophysiological basis and rationale for early outpatient treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Infection. Am J Med, 134(1):16-22.

Menni, C., Klaser, K., May, A., Polidori, L., Nguzen, L.H., Drew, D.A., Merino, J., Hu, C., Selvachandran, S., Antonelli, M., Murray, B., Canas, L.S., Molteni, E., Graham, M.S., Modat, M., Joshi, A.D., Mangino, M., Hammers, A., Goodman, A.L., Chan, A.T., Wolf, J., Steves, C.J., Valdes, A.M., Ourselin, S., & Spector, T.D. (2021). Vaccine side-effects and SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination in users of the COVID Symptom Study app in the UK: a prospective observational study. Lancet Infect Dis, 21(7): 939-949.

Mereckiene, J. (2018). Seasonal influenza vaccination and antiviral use in EU/EEA Member States. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. or

Mevorach, D., Anis, E., Cedar, N., Bromberg, M., Haas, E.J., Nadir, E., Olsha-Castell, S., Arad, D., Hasin, T., Levi, N., Asleh, R., Amir, O., Meir, K., Cohen, D., Dichtiar, R., Novick, D., Hershkovitz, Y., Dagan, R., Leitersdorf, I., Ben-Ami, R., Miskin, I., Saliba, W., Muhsen, K., Levi, Y., Green, M.S., Keinan-Boker, L., & Alroy-Preis, S. (2021). Myocarditis after BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine against COVID-19 in Israel. N Engl J Med, NEJMoa2109730.

MWGFD, (2021). Mediziner und Wissenschaftler fuer Gesundheit, Freiheit und Demokratie e.V (Association of Physicians and Scientists for Health, Freedom and Democracy). (accessed: Dec. 2021)

Miller, M.B., & Bassler, B.L. (2001). Quorum sensing in bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol, 55: 165-99.

Moelling, K. (2017). Viruses, More Friends Than Foes. World Scientific, Singapore. ISBN 978-9-813-14782-9.

Mold, M., Shardlow, E., & Exley, C. (2016). Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations. Scientific Reports, 6, 31578.

Molina, V., & Shoenfeld, Y. (2005). Infection, vaccines and other environmental triggers of autoimmunity. Autoimmunity, 38(3):235-45.

Mullis, K., Faloona, F., Scharf, S., Saiki, R., Horn, G., & Erlich, H. (1986). Specific Enzymatic Amplification of DNA In Vitro: The Polymerase Chain Reaction. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 51, 263–273.

Naito, Y., Takagi, T., Yamamoto, T., & Watanabe, S. (2020). Association between selective IgA deficiency and COVID-19. J Clin Biochem Nutr, 67(2): 122-125.

Nair, M.S., Huang, Y., Fidock, D.A., Towler, M.J., & Weathers, P.J. (2021). Artemisia annua hot-water extracts show potent activity in vitro against Covid-19 variants including delta. bioRxiv, 2021.09.08.459260.

NatBiotech, (2016). Research not fit to print. Nat Biotechnol, 34(2): 115. PMID: 26849496

Negro, F. (2020). Is antibody-dependent enhancement playing a role in COVID-19 pathogenesis? Swiss Med Wkly, 150: w20249.

Nelde, A., Bilich, T., Heitmann, J.S., Maringer, Y., Salih, H.R., Roerden, M., Lübke, M., Bauer, J., Rieth, J., Wacker, M., Peter, A., Hörber, S., Traenkle, B., Kaiser, P.D., Rothbauer, U., Becker, M., Junker, D., Krause, G., Strengert, M., Schneiderhan-Marra, N., Templin, M.F., Joos, T.O., Kowalewski, D.J., Stos-Zweifel, V., Fehr, M., Rabsteyn, A., Mirakaj, V., Karbach, J., Jäger, E., Graf, M., Gruber, L.C., Rachfalski, D., Preuss, B., Hagelstein, I., Märklin, M., Bakchoul, T., Gouttefangeas, C., Kohlbacher, O., Klein, R., Stevanović, S., Rammensee, H.G., & Walz, J.S. (2021). SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides define heterologous and COVID-19-induced T cell recognition. Nat Immunol, 22(1):74-85.

Ng, W.H., Liu, X., & Mahalingam, S. (2020). Development of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. F1000 Faculty Rev-991.

Nicolas, E.S. (2021). Advice on AstraZeneca varies across EU, amid blood clot fears. EuObserver. (accessed: Feb. 2021)

Niesen, M.J.M., Anand, P., Silvert, E., Suratekar, R., Pawlowski, C., Ghosh, P., Lenehan, P., Hughes, T., Zemmour, D., O’Horo, J.C., Yao, J.D., Pritt, B.S., Norgan, A., Hurt, R.T., Badley, A.D., Venkatakrishnan, A.J., & Soundararajan, V. (2021). COVID-19 vaccines dampen genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2: Unvaccinated patients exhibit more antigenic mutational variance. medRxiv, 2021.07.01.21259833.

Oller, J. W., & Shaw, C.A. (2019). From superficial damage to invasion of the nucleosome: Ranking of morbidities by the biosemiotic depth hypothesis. International Journal of Sciences, 8(06), 51–73.

Olliaro, P., Torreele, E., & Vaillant, M. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and effectiveness-the elephant (not) in the room. Lancet Microbe, 2(7): e279-e280.

Olszak, T., An, D., Zeissig, S., Vera, M.P., Richter, J., Franke, A., Glickman, J.N., Siebert, R., Baron, R.M., Kasper, D.L., & Blumberg, R.S. (2012). Microbial exposure during early life has persistent effects on natural killer T cell function. Science, 336(6080), 489–493.

Ou, J., Zhou, Z., Dai, R., Zhang, J., Zhao, S., Wu, X., Lan, W., Ren, Y., Cui, L., Lan, Q., Lu, L., Seto, D., Chodosh, J., Wu, J., Zhang, G., & Zhang, Q. (2021). V367F Mutation in SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD emerging during the early transmission phase enhances viral infectivity through increased human ACE2 receptor binding affinity. Journal of Virology, 95(16), e00617-21.

Pachetti, M., Marini, B., Benedetti, F., Giudici, F., Mauro, E., Storici, P., Masciovecchio, C., Angeletti, S., Ciccozzi, M., Gallo, R. C., Zella, D., & Ippodrino, R. (2020). Emerging SARS-CoV-2 mutation hot spots include a novel RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase variant. Journal of Translational Medicine, 18(1), 179.

Palmieri, V., Perini, G., De Spirito, M., & Papi, M. (2019). Graphene oxide touches blood: in vivo interactions of bio-coronated 2D materials. Nanoscale Horiz, 4(2):273-290.

Petrik, M. S., Wong, M. C., Tabata, R. C., Garry, R. F., & Shaw, C. A. (2007). Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War Illness induces motor neuron death in mice. NeuroMolecular Medicine, 9(1), 83–100.

PGEI, (2021). Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus. Polio Global Eradication Initiative, WHO. (accessed: April 2021)

Pujol, A., Gomez, L.-A., Gallegos, C., Nicolau, J., Sanchis, P., Gonzalez-Freire, M., Lopez-Gonzalez, A. A., Dotres, K., & Masmiquel, L. (2021). Thyroid as a target of adjuvant autoimmunity/inflammatory syndrome due to mRNA-based SARS-CoV2 vaccination: From Graves’ disease to silent thyroiditis. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation.

Rambaut, A., Loman, N., Pybus, O., Barclay, W., Barrett, J., Carabelli, A., Connor, T., Peacock, T., Robertson, D.L., Volz, E., COVID-19 Genomics Consortium UK (2020). Preliminary genomic characterisation of an emergent SARS-CoV-2 lineage in the UK defined by a novel set of spike mutations. (accessed: Feb. 2021)

Raveendran, A.V., Jayadevan, R., & Sashidharan, S. (2021). Long COVID: An overview. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome, 15(3), 869–875.

Reiss, K., & Bhakdi, S. (2020). Corona False Alarm? Facts and Figures, 1st ed. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN: 978-1645020578

Rose, J., & McCullough, P.A. (2021) A Report on Myocarditis Adverse Events in the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) in Association with COVID-19 Injectable Biological Products. Curr Probl Cardiol, 101011 ahead of print.

Rosenthal, S., & Cummings, C.L. (2021). Influence of rapid COVID-19 vaccine development on vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine, S0264-410X(21)01448-1.

Salah, H.M., & Mehta, J.L. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine and myocarditis. Am J Cardiol, S0002-9149(21)00639-1.

Salle, V. (2021). Coronavirus-induced autoimmunity. Clin Immunol, 226:108694.

Sander, V.A., Corigliano, M.G., & Clemente, M. (2019). Promising plant-derived adjuvants in the development of coccidial vaccines. Front Vet Sci, 6:20.

Shoenfeld, Y., & Aron-Maor, A. (2000). Vaccination and autoimmunity-'vaccinosis': a dangerous liaison? J Autoimmun, 14(1):1- doi: 10.1006/jaut.1999.0346

Schuchat, A. (2021). Joint CDC and FDA Statement on Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine. Center of Disiease Control & Prevenetion. (accessed: Feb. 2021)

Sekine, T., Perez-Potti, A., Rivera-Ballesteros, O., Strålin, K., Gorin, J.B., Olsson, A., Llewellyn-Lacey, S., Kamal, H., Bogdanovic, G., Muschiol, S., Wullimann, D.J., Kammann, T., Emgård, J., Parrot, T., Folkesson, E., Karolinska COVID-19 Study Group, Rooyackers, O., Eriksson, L.I., Henter, J.I., Sönnerborg, A., Allander, T., Albert, J., Nielsen, M., Klingström, J., Gredmark-Russ, S., Björkström, N.K., Sandberg, J.K., Price, D.A., Ljunggren, H.G., Aleman, S., & Buggert, M. (2020). Robust T cell immunity in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19. Cell, 183(1):158-168.e14.

Seneff, S., Nigh, G. (2021). Worse than the disease? Reviewing some possible unintended consequences of the mRNA vaccines against COVID-19. International Journal of Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research, 2(1): 38-79. Retrieved from

Seow, J., Graham, C., Merrick, B., Acors, S., Steel, K.J.A., Hemmings, O., O’Bryne, A., Kouphou, N., Pickering, S., Galao, R.P., Betancor, G., Wilson, H.D., Signell, A.W., Winstone, H., Kerridge, C., Temperton, N., Snell, L., Bisnauthsing, K., Moore, A., Green, A., Martinez, L., Stokes, B., Honey, J., Izquierdo-Barras, A., Arbane, G., Pate, A., O’Connell, L., O’Hara, G., MacMahon, E., Douthwaite, S., Nebbia, G., Batra, R., Martinez-Nunez, R., Edgeworth, J.D., Neil, S.J.D., Malim, M.H., & Doores, K.J. (2020). Longitudinal evaluation and decline of antibody responses in 1 SARS-CoV-2 infection. medRxiv, 2020.07.09.20148429.

Shao, S.C., Wang, C.H., Chang, K.C., Hung, M.J., Chen, H.Y., & Liao, S.C. (2021). Guillain-Barré Syndrome Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination. Emerg Infect Dis, 27(12): 3175-3178.

Shaw, C.A., Li, D., & Tomljenovic, L. (2014). Are there negative CNS impacts of aluminum adjuvants used in vaccines and immunotherapy? Immunotherapy, 6(10), 1055–1071.

Shaw, C. A., Seneff, S., Kette, S. D., Tomljenovic, L., Oller, J. W., & Davidson, R. M. (2014). Aluminum-induced entropy in biological systems: Implications for neurological disease. Journal of Toxicology, 491316.

Shi, Z., & Puyo, C.A. (2020). Acetylcysteine to Combat COVID-19: An evidence review. Ther Clin Risk Manag, 16: 1047-1055.

Shimoyama, S., Kanisawa, Y., Ono, K., Souri, M., & Ichinose, A. (2021). First and fatal case of autoimmune acquired factor XIII/13 deficiency after COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Am J Hematol, 1–3.

Singh, J.A., & Upshur, R.E.G. (2020). The granting of emergency use designation to COVID-19 candidate vaccines: implications for COVID-19 vaccine trials. Lancet Infect Dis, 8: S1473-3099(20)30923-3.

South, A.M., Diz, D., & Chappell, M.C. (2020). COVID-19, ACE2, and the cardiovascular consequences. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 318(5), H1084–H1090.

Stecklow, S., & Macaskill, A. (2021). The ex-Pfizer scientist who became an anti-vax hero. Reuters Special Report. (accessed: Dec. 2021)

Sumi, T., Nagahisa, Y., Matsuura, K., Sekikawa, M., Yamada, Y., Nakata, H., & Chiba, H. (2021). Lung squamous cell carcinoma with hemoptysis after vaccination with tozinameran (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech). Thorac Cancer, 12: 3072-3075.

SWPRS, (2021). On the Treatment of COVID-19. Swiss Policy Research Report. (accessed: Aug. 2021)

Tablizo, F.A., Kim, K.M., Lapid, C.M., Castro, M.J.R., Yangzon, M.S.L., Maralit, B.A., Ayes, M.E.C., Cutiongco-de la Paz, E.M., De Guzman, A.R., Yap, J.M.C., Llames, J.S., Araiza, S.M.M., Punayan, K.P., Asin, I.C.A., Tambaoan, C.F.B., Chong, A.L.U., Padilla, K.S.A.R., Cruz, R.P.S., Morado, E.K.D., Dizon, J.G.A., Hao, R.N.M., Zamora, A.A., Pacial, D.R., Magalang, J.A.R., Alejandria, M., Carlos, C., Ong-Lim, A., Salvaña, E.M., Wong, J.Q., Montoya, J.C., Singh-Vergeire, M.R., & Saloma, C.P. (2021). Genome sequencing and analysis of an emergent SARS-CoV-2 variant characterized by multiple spike protein mutations detected from the Central Visayas Region of the Philippines. medRxiv, 2021.

Takano, T., Yamada, S., Doki, T., & Hohdatsu, T. (2019). Pathogenesis of oral type I feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection: Antibody-dependent enhancement infection of cats with type I FIPV via the oral route. J Vet Med Sci, 81(6): 911-915.

TSC, (2021). Nanotechnological investigations on Covid-19 vaccines. White paper on “vaccines’” compositions. The Scientists’ Club. (accessed: Aug. 2021)

Tomljenovic, L., & Shaw, C.A. (2011). Aluminum vaccine adjuvants: Are they safe? Current Medicinal Chemistry, 18(17): 2630–2637.

Toussirot, É., & Bereau, M. (2015). Vaccination and Induction of Autoimmune Diseases. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2015;14(2):94-8.

Tsumiyama, K., Miyazaki, Y., & Shiozawa, S. (2009). Self-organized criticality theory of autoimmunity. PLoS One, 4(12): e8382.

Turner, J.S., Kim, W., Kalaidina, E., Goss, C.W., Rauseo, A.M., Schmitz, A.J., Hansen, L., Haile, A., Klebert, M.K., Pusic, I., O'Halloran, J.A., Presti, R.M., & Ellebedy, A.H. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans. Nature, 595: 421-525.

Ura, T., Okuda, K., & Shimada, M. (2014). Development in viral vector based vaccines. Vaccines, 2(3): 624–641;

Uriu, K., Kimura, I., Shirakawa, K., Takaori-Kondo, A., Nakada, T.A., Kaneda, A., The Genotype to Phenotype Japan (G2P-Japan) Consortium, Nakagawa, S., & Sato, K. (2021). Ineffective neutralization of the SARS-CoV-2 Mu variant by convalescent and vaccine sera. bioRxiv, 2021.09.06.459005.

VAERS, (2021). Searching the VEARS database. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. (accessed: Feb. 2021); (accessed: Jan. 2022)

Van Den Bossche, G. (2021). Why should current Covid-19 vaccines not be used for mass vaccination during a pandemic? Vaccines Summit Ohio 2021 (SOHI021). (accessed: March 2021)

Villarreal L.P., (2005) Viruses and the Evolution of Life. American Society for Microbiology Press, Washington (DC); ISBN 1-55581-309-7

Villarreal, L.P., Witzany, G. (2013) Rethinking quasispecies theory: From fittest type to cooperative consortia. World J Biol Chem, 4(4): 79-90.

Villarreal, L.P. (2015) Virolution Can Help Us Understand the Origin of Life. In: Kolb V (ed). Astrobiology – An Evolutionary Approach. CRC Press, Boca Raton (FL); ISBN 13-978-1-4665-8462-4

Villarreal, L.P., Witzany, G. (2021) Social networking of quasi-species consortia drive virolution via persistence. AIMS Microbiology, 7(2): 138-162.

Vojdani, A., Vojdani, E., & Kharrazian, D. (2021). Reaction of human monoclonal antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 proteins with tissue antigens: implications for autoimmune diseases. Front Immunol, 11:617089.

Wadman, M. (2021). Israel’s grim warning: Delta can overwhelm shots. Science, 373(6557): 838-839.

Wall, E.C., Wu, M., Harvey, R., Kelly, G., Warchal, S., Sawyer, C., Daniels, R., Hobson, P., Hatipoglu, E., Ngai, Y., Hussain, S., Nicod, J., Goldstone, R., Ambrose, K., Hindmarsh, S., Beale, R., Riddell, A., Gamblin, S., Howell, M., Kassiotis, G., Libri, V., Williams, B., Swanton, C., Gandhi, S., & Bauer, D.L. (2021). Neutralising antibody activity against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs B.1.617.2 and B.1.351 by BNT162b2 vaccination. Lancet, 19;397(10292): 2331-2333.

Wallukat, G., Hohberger, B., Wenzel, K., Fürst, J., Schulze-Rothe, S., Wallukat, A., Hönicke, A.S., & Müller, J. (2021). Functional autoantibodies against G-protein coupled receptors in patients with persistent Long-COVID-19 symptoms. J Transl Autoimmun, 4: 100100.

Wang, J., Lu, L., Song, H., Yang, Y., & Ma, Y. (2010). [Effect of polyethylene glycol as adjuvant on hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine in vitro]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao = Acta Microbiologica Sinica, 50(7), 949–954.

Waters, C.M., & Bassler, B.L. (2005). Quorum sensing: cell-to-cell communication in bacteria. Annu Rev Cell Dev Bio, 21: 319-46.

Watson, J., Whiting, P.F., & Brush, J.E. (2020). Interpreting a covid-19 test result. BMJ, 369: m1808.

White, D.O., & Fenner, F.J. (1994) Medical Virology, 4th ed. Academic Press, San Diego (CA). ISBN 0-12-746642-8

WHO, (2021). COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca solution for injection. (accessed: Feb. 2021)

Wilson, A. (2021). Dr. Ryan Cole Shares 20-fold Increase of Cancers & Autoimmune Diseases in Vaccinated Population. The True Defender ! or alternatively: (accessed: Sep. 2021)

Win-Shwe, T.T., & Fujimaki, H. (2011). Nanoparticles and neurotoxicity. Int J Mol Sci, 12(9): 6267-6280;

Wise, J. (2021). Covid-19: The E484K mutation and the risks it poses. BMJ, 372: n359.

Witzany, G. (2006). Natural Genome-Editing Competences of Viruses. Acta Biotheorethica, 54: 235-253.

Wodarg, W.(2021). Viren sind nicht das Problem - bleiben Sie besonnen! (Viruses are not the problem - stay calm!). (accessed: Dec. 2021)

Wolff, G. (2020). Influenza vaccination and respiratory virus interference among Department of Defense personnel during the 2017–2018 influenza season. Vaccine, 38: 350–354.

Wood, D., Pereyra, M., Halfon, N., Hamlin, J., & Grabowsky, M. (1995). Vaccination levels in Los Angeles public health centers: the contribution of missed opportunities to vaccinate and other factors. Am J Public Health, 85(6): 850-853.

Wraith, D.C., Goldman, M., & Lambert, P.H. (2003). Vaccination and autoimmune disease: what is the evidence? Lancet, 15;362(9396):1659-1666.

Xu, L., Xiang, J., Liu, Y., Xu, J., Luo, Y., Feng, L., Liu, Z., & Peng, R. (2016). Functionalized graphene oxide serves as a novel vaccine nano-adjuvant for robust stimulation of cellular immunity. Nanoscale, 14;8(6):3785-95.

Xu, L., Ma, Z., Li, Y., Pang, Z., & Xiao, S. (2021). Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development. Adv Immunol, 151:99-133.

Xu, N., Gu, Q., Du, J., Ge, H., Long, S., Sun, W., Fan, J., & Peng, X. (2021). Photodynamic inheritance from methylene blue to carbon dots against reduction, aggregation, and DNA interference. Science China-Materials, 64(9), 2325–2336.

Yan, B., Chakravorty, S., Mirabelli, C., Wang, L., Trujillo-Ochoa, J.L., Chauss, D., Kumar, D., Lionakis, M.S., Olson, M.R., Wobus, C.E., Afzali, B., & Kazemian, M. (2021). Host-virus chimeric events in SARS-CoV2 infected cells are infrequent and artifactual. BioRxiv, [preprint]: 2021.02.17.431704.

Zhang, L.Z., Jackson, C.B., Mou, H.H., Ojha, A., Rangarajan, E.S., Izard, T., Farzan, M., & Choe, H.Y. (2020a). The D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein reduces S1 shedding and increases infectivity. Scripps Research preprint. (accessed: June 2020).

Zhang, L., Richards, A., Khalil, A., Wogram, E., Ma, H., Young, R.A., & Jaenisch, R. (2020b). SARS-CoV-2 RNA reverse-transcribed and integrated into the human genome. bioRxiv, [preprint]: 2020.12.12.422516.

Zhang, S., Liu, Y., Wang, X., Yang, L., Li, H., Wang, Y., Liu, M., Zhao, X., Xie, Y., Yang, Y., Zhang, S., Fan, Z., Dong, J., Yuan, Z., Ding, Z., Zhang, Y., & Hu, L. (2020c). SARS-CoV-2 binds platelet ACE2 to enhance thrombosis in COVID-19. J Hematol Oncol, 13(1): 120.

Zhang, H., & Xia, X. (2021). RNA cancer vaccines: Developing mRNA nanovaccine with self-adjuvant property for cancer immunotherapy. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 17(9), 2995–2998.

Zhang, L., Richards, A., Barrasa, M.I., Hughes, S.H., Young, R.A., Jaenisch, R. (2021). Reverse-transcribed SARS-CoV-2 RNA can integrate into the genome of cultured human cells and can be expressed in patient-derived tissues. PNAS, 118 (21), e2105968118.

cover image of volume 2 issue 1



2022-01-18 — Updated on 2022-03-05


How to Cite

Sangaletti, P., Doe, J., Gatti, A., Arvay, C., Giuliani, L., & Lettner, H. (2022). SARS-CoV-2 and the Vaccination Hype. International Journal of Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research, 2(1), 173–207. (Original work published January 18, 2022)