Perceived Experience in Social Circles with COVID-19 Injections and COVID-19 “Vaccine” Mandates: An Online Survey of the United States Population




COVID-19 injections, survey, vaccine mandate, COVID-19


In response to the COVID-19 crisis, decision-makers in countries around the world adopted policies such as lockdowns, mask requirements, and once COVID-19 injections became available, “vaccine” mandates and “vaccine” passports. However, political polarization and differences in risk perceptions in the populous generated strong support for and opposition to such measures. This research identifies the factors associated with support for/against COVID-19 injection mandates and passports. An online survey of COVID-19 health experiences in the United States population was conducted to collect information regarding potential reasons why respondents might favor or oppose COVID-19 injection mandates and passports, including experiences with COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 injections by respondents and those in their social circles. Analysis using a Logit regression technique was conducted to identify factors influencing the likelihood of opposing COVID-19 injection mandates and passports. The survey was completed by 2,840 participants between December 18 and 23, 2021. Twenty-two percent (612 of 2,840) of respondents reported that they knew at least one person who had experienced a health problem following COVID-19 injection. Respondents who knew someone who experienced a health problem following COVID-19 injection were more likely to oppose injection mandates (OR: 2.040, 95% CI: 1.635-2.254, and passports (OR: 1.691, 95% CI: 1.361-2.101)) Perceptions of COVID-19 injection safety based on personal experiences appear to be an important determinant of opposition to injection mandates and passports.

Author Biographies

  • Mark Skidmore, Michigan State University

    Mark Skidmore is Professor and Morris Chair in State and Local Government Finance and Policy

  • Fernanda Alfaro, Michigan State University

    Fernanda Alfaro is a Ph.D. Student in the Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics at Michigan State University


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How to Cite

Perceived Experience in Social Circles with COVID-19 Injections and COVID-19 “Vaccine” Mandates: An Online Survey of the United States Population. (2024). International Journal of Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research , 3(1), 1055-1084.

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